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Previous studies have shown that disgust covaries with moral judgment (11) and punishment in the UG (43). Blocking serotonin reuptake with citalopram influenced moral judgment in emotionally salient personal scenarios, making subjects less likely to endorse harming one person to save many others, and also made subjects less likely to harm others via punishment in an economic game, effects that were stronger in highly empathic individuals.

This pattern of results implies that serotonin promotes prosocial behavior by enhancing the aversiveness of harming others, an effect that drives both moral judgment and behavior. Our findings also have implications for the use of serotonin agents in the treatment of antisocial and aggressive behavior (47, 62).

Understanding the influence of serotonin on social and moral behavior is especially important because serotonin is implicated in a wide range of psychiatric disorders and sensitive to the environmental context (33), which is a demonstrably powerful force Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum our social lives.

The protocol was approved by the Cambridgeshire Research Ethics Committee. Participants were financially compensated. Two participants dropped out of the study before completing all three sessions.

Two participants were excluded from all analyses because of severe peripheral side effects, and two participants were excluded Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum indicating at Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum that they did not believe the UG was real.

The final analysis was carried out in 24 participants. Participants attended three sessions at Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK (at least 1 wk apart) and received single Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum of atomoxetine (60 mg), citalopram (30 mg), and placebo in a double-blind fully counterbalanced design.

At the start of each session, participants completed mood and trait questionnaires (Tylenol-Codiene)- took the drug orally. Administration of cognitive testing was timed to coincide with the peak effects of both compounds, based on previous pharmacokinetic data. Mood was assessed by using visual analog scales and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (66). (Ttlenol-Codeine)- the end of the Acetaminoophen session, participants completed a debriefing questionnaire about their overall impressions of the study, including whether they believed they would be paid based on their choices during the UG and whether (Tylenlo-Codeine)- had any suspicions about Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum order of drug administration.

In the task, participants made judgments on a series of hypothetical scenarios, presented as text on three screens. The first two screens described the scenario, and the third screen posed a question relevant to the current scenario (e. Each subject also responded to a set of nonmoral scenarios.

On each session, participants responded to 6 nonmoral scenarios, 6 impersonal moral scenarios, and 17 personal moral scenarios. Participants played the role of responder via computer interface. On each session, participants played the role of responder in 24 games, each with a different proposer. Proposer identities were randomly matched with offers. Participants received identical offers on each session. After completing the UG task, participants rated the fairness of six Verteporfin Injection (Visudyne)- FDA representative of the different fairness categories on a Likert scale of 1 (very unfair) to 7 (very fair).

The critical dependent measures were the proportions of offers rejected at each level of fairness and Acetaminophdn fairness ratings roche vacancies each level of fairness. In line with previous studies in this area (10, 19, 52), response data were modeled by using generalized estimating equations (GEE) (67).

For the UG analysis, we analyzed rejection rates with drug, session, and fairness as within-subjects factors. For the Moral Judgment analysis, we analyzed acceptable judgment rates with drug, session, and scenario type as within-subjects factors. Factors were dropped from subsequent analyses when nonsignificant. When Acetajinophen factors were found, we conducted post hoc pairwise Least Significant Difference tests (for non-normally distributed dependent variables) and t tests (for normally distributed dependent variables).

Significant Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum were set at P We thank the staff at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, B. This work was completed within the University of Cambridge Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, funded by a joint award from the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust and also by a Network Award from the JT McDonnell Foundation.

Conflict of interest statement: T. Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Log in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the (Tylenol-Codeinee)- Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Ucla Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article Molly J.

Crockett, Luke Clark, Marc D. Hauser, and Trevor W. ResultsConsistent with Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum findings, emotional salience influenced (Tylrnol-Codeine)- judgment.

DiscussionThe (Tylenol-Cpdeine)- of this study was to examine the modulatory role of serotonin on human moral judgment and behavior. We used the same UG task as in Voltaren Ophthalmic (Diclofenac Sodium Ophthalmic Solution)- Multum first study (16).

Significant differences were set at P AcknowledgmentsWe Acetaminophen and Codeine (Tylenol-Codeine)- Multum the staff at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, B. Footnotes1To whom correspondence should be addressed.

See Commentary on page 17071. OpenUrlCrossRefSinger T, Lamm C (2009) The social neuroscience of empathy.

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