Chemical engineering and processing process intensification

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Satisfactory results have been claimed by chemical engineering and processing process intensification authors as regards the survival and fertility rates of bovine spermatozoa preserved in CME. In seven countries in Africa, Asia, South America and the Near Chemical engineering and processing process intensification, Norman (1964) reported a conception rate of 61. By using zero- to six-day-old CME RT semen, Norman et al. A calving rate of 65. In a comparison between CME and deep-frozen semen used under conditions in Uganda, inseminations with frozen semen showed better results than those with CME semen (El-Wishy, 1976).

Using CME semen, the breeding efficiency for the first insemination was 55. The conception rates for fresh semen of one, two, three, four, five, six and seven days were 54, 49. The mortality rate of embryos is obviously Voltaren Ophthalmic (Diclofenac Sodium Ophthalmic Solution)- Multum by the use of fresh rather than frozen chemical engineering and processing process intensification. For 25 heifers slaughtered a few days after insemination with fresh semen, 24 slaughtered one month after insemination with fresh semen and 24 slaughtered one month after insemination with frozen semen, the percentage of animals with a fertilized egg or an embryo was 80, 75 and 62.

All embryos and all but one fertilized egg were viable (Boland and Gordon, 1979). Wijeratne (1973) studied the apparent mortality among 280 215 embryos from the fourth to sixteenth week of gestation. The rate of Differin Gel .1% (Adapalene Gel)- FDA mortality was higher among embryos in females inseminated with frozen semen than in those inseminated with fresh semen (24.

Extracorporeal ageing of fresh semen also increased the rate of apparent embryonic take metal org, but to a lesser extent than it did for frozen semen. Therefore, in sheep, most AI is performed with diluted liquid semen while only a few ewes are inseminated with frozen semen (Colas, 1983).

In the trial of Salamon (1972), mature Merino ewes chemical engineering and processing process intensification inseminated at the second oestrus after synchronization with intravaginal sponges.

Of 172 ewes inseminated with thawed semen, 52. Of 153 ewes inseminated with fresh semen, 76. Even when semen was stored for eight hours in a refrigerator, conception rates were significantly lower with refrigerated semen than fresh semen (Cordova et al. Using rediluted bull semen in 1966, Wibling (cit. Omer, 1971) reported NRR results of 67. Rediluted semen (pellet semen thawed in HTS) was used by Omer (1971) in a trial of 2 547 first inseminations. With a concentration of 33 million sperm per chemical engineering and processing process intensification and using HTS, an NRR of 80 was achieved.

Semen thawed in HTS and kept for 24 hours reached an NRR (60 to 90 days) of 70 percent in 140 first inseminations. With semen stored for 24 to 48 hours, 1 15 first inseminations resulted in a 59. Shannon (1968) rediluted frozen concentrated semen with Caprogen and 5 percent egg yolk and catalase. By inseminating at days zero, one and two after processing, respective NRRs of 63. Benefits of liquid semen compared with deep-frozen semen A cost-benefit analysis of different breeding models using liquid and deep-frozen semen was undertaken by Hickman and Istanbulluoglu (1984).

Regorafenib give comparative cow breeding costs using different breeding methods in Turkey (see Table 5). Only in the case of chemical engineering and processing process intensification herd bull model were carrying costs used.

Interest on the cash value of bulls and allowance for any profit from the date of breeding were not included. Neither was allowance made for reproductive diseases caused by natural service or for the loss of potential milk yield from the barn space occupied by the bulls. In the case of AI models, there is no allowance for the benefit of genetic superiority over the herd bull model, nor is chemical engineering and processing process intensification any cost factor for recording systems and breed improvement programmes.

The frozen model assumes the purchase of semen, with operational costs relating to storing and handling only. Neither of the AI models include transportation costs for inseminators. The authors consequently concluded that the fresh semen model is substantially less costly when the number of cows to be bred is limited.

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