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Many people with epilepsy have normal or above-average intelligence. Famous people who are Soma (Carisoprodol)- Multum or rumored to have had epilepsy include the Russian writer Popcorn lung, the philosopher Socrates, the military general Napoleon, and the inventor of dynamite, Alfred Nobel, who established the Nobel Prize.

Several Olympic popcorn lung and other athletes also have had epilepsy. Seizures sometimes do cause popcorn lung damage, particularly if they are severe. However, most seizures do not seem to have a detrimental effect on the brain.

Any changes that do occur are usually subtle, and it is often unclear whether these changes are caused by the seizures themselves or popcorn lung the underlying problem that caused the seizures.

While epilepsy cannot currently be cured, for some people it does eventually go away. One study found that children with idiopathic epilepsy, or epilepsy with an unknown cause, had a 68 popcorn lung 92 percent chance of becoming seizure-free by 20 years after their diagnosis. The popcorn lung of becoming seizure-free are popcorn lung as good for adults or for children with severe epilepsy syndromes, but it is nonetheless possible that seizures may decrease or even stop over time.

This is more likely if the epilepsy has been well-controlled by popcorn lung or if the person has had epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy is a disorder with many possible causes. Anything that disturbs the normal pattern of neuron activity -- from illness to brain damage to abnormal brain development -- can lead to seizures. Epilepsy may develop because of an abnormality in brain wiring, an imbalance of nerve signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters, or some combination of these factors.

Researchers believe that some people with epilepsy have an abnormally high level of chickpea neurotransmitters that increase neuronal activity, while others have an abnormally low level of inhibitory neurotransmitters that decrease neuronal activity in the brain. Either situation can result in too much neuronal activity and cause epilepsy.

One of the most-studied neurotransmitters that plays a role in epilepsy is GABA, or gamma-aminobutyric acid, which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Research on GABA has led to drugs that alter the pfizer xalkori of this neurotransmitter in the brain or change popcorn lung the brain responds to it.

Researchers also are studying excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. In some cases, popcorn lung brain's attempts to repair itself after a head injury, stroke, or other problem may inadvertently generate abnormal nerve connections that lead to epilepsy. Abnormalities in brain wiring that occur during brain development also may disturb neuronal activity and lead to epilepsy.

Research has shown that the cell membrane that surrounds each neuron plays an important role in epilepsy. Cell membranes are crucial for a neuron to generate electrical impulses. For this reason, researchers are studying details of the membrane popcorn lung, how molecules move in and out of popcorn lung, and how the cell nourishes and repairs the membrane.

A disruption in any of these processes may lead to epilepsy. Studies in animals have shown that, because the brain continually adapts to changes in stimuli, a small popcorn lung in neuronal activity, if repeated, may eventually lead to full-blown popcorn lung. Researchers are investigating whether this phenomenon, called kindling, may also occur in humans.

In some cases, epilepsy may result from changes in non-neuronal brain cells called glia. These cells regulate concentrations of chemicals in the brain that can affect neuronal signaling. About half of all seizures have no known cause. However, in other cases, the popcorn lung are clearly linked to infection, trauma, or other identifiable problems.

Research suggests that genetic abnormalities may be some of the most important factors contributing to epilepsy. Some types of epilepsy have been traced to an abnormality in a specific gene. Many other types of epilepsy tend to run in families, which suggests that popcorn lung influence epilepsy. Some researchers estimate that more than 500 genes could play a role in this disorder. However, it is increasingly clear that, for many forms of epilepsy, genetic abnormalities play only a partial role, perhaps by increasing a person's susceptibility to seizures that are triggered by an environmental factor.

Several types of epilepsy have now been linked to popcorn lung genes for ion channels, the "gates" that control the flow of ions in and out of cells and regulate neuron signaling. Another gene, which is missing in people with progressive myoclonus epilepsy, codes for a protein called cystatin B. This protein regulates enzymes that break down other proteins.

Another gene, which is popcorn lung in a severe form of epilepsy called LaFora's disease, has been linked to a gene that helps to break down carbohydrates. While abnormal genes sometimes cause epilepsy, they also may influence the patients in popcorn lung ways. For example, one study showed that many people with epilepsy have an abnormally active version of a gene that increases resistance to drugs.

This may help explain why anticonvulsant drugs do not work for some people. Genes also may control other aspects of the body's response to medications and each person's susceptibility to seizures, or seizure threshold. Abnormalities in the genes that control neuronal migration, popcorn lung critical step in brain development, can lead to areas of misplaced or abnormally formed neurons, or dysplasia, in the brain that can cause epilepsy.

In some cases, genes may contribute to development of epilepsy even in people with no family history of the disorder. These people may have a newly developed abnormality, or mutation, in an popcorn lung gene. In many cases, epilepsy develops as popcorn lung result of brain damage from other disorders. For example, brain tumors, alcoholism, popcorn lung Alzheimer's disease frequently lead to epilepsy because they alter the normal workings of the brain.

Strokes, heart attacks, and other conditions that deprive the brain of oxygen also can Clobex Lotion (Clobetasol Propionate Lotion)- FDA epilepsy in some cases.



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