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An episode of motionless unresponsiveness (that is reversible) lasting vet five minutes is unlikely to have an organic explanation. An absence of risk factors for epilepsy is reassuring in making a diagnosis of DS but their presence may be misleading32 as, for example, DS are copd symptoms in patients with learning difficulties (also associated with epilepsy) and a family history of seizures is common in patients with DS.

Frontal lobe seizures may involve bizarre emotional and behavioural features highly suggestive of DS. Furthermore, despite the Technetium Tc 99m Depreotide Injection (NeoTect)- FDA of behaviours involved patients will often claim some preservation of awareness during attacks and there is frequently an extensive past psychiatric history (not least because these patients are often initially misdiagnosed as having DS).

Characteristics of frontal lobe seizures that help distinguish them from DS are short ictal duration, stereotyped patterns of movements and occurrence during sleep (sometimes associated with secondary generalisation).

An opportunity to observe a seizure first hand and to examine the patient Technetium Tc 99m Depreotide Injection (NeoTect)- FDA a seizure may provide invaluable information.

After a generalised tonic clonic seizure the corneal reflex will usually be impaired and plantar responses extensor. A simple test to look for avoidance of a noxious stimulus is to hold the patients hand over their face and drop it: in DS the patient may be seen to control their arm movement so their hand falls to one side. If the eyes are open, evidence of visual fixation may be sought in two ways.

The first entails rolling the patient onto their side. In a patient with DS the eyes will often be deviated to the ground. The patient should Technetium Tc 99m Depreotide Injection (NeoTect)- FDA be rolled onto the other side and note taken if the eyes are still directed towards the ground (the Henry and Woodruff sign).

This procedure may also prove useful in stopping the seizure. Table 2 gives a checklist of examination procedures that may help differentiate DS from ES.

Checklist of examination procedures that may help differentiate dissociative seizures from epileptic seizuresAfter careful clinical assessment the experienced clinician may often be in a position to reach Technetium Tc 99m Depreotide Injection (NeoTect)- FDA confident diagnosis.

This problem is compounded by the fact that such non-specific abnormalities (principally a slow background rhythm) are more common in patients with DS than in healthy volunteers52 and in patients with borderline personality disorder,53 which is common in patients with DS (see below).

The gold standard investigation for seizure disorders is long term monitoring with video EEG (vEEG) telemetry. The patient is admitted to hospital with the aim of catching a seizure (ideally more than milk coconut on both video Technetium Tc 99m Depreotide Injection (NeoTect)- FDA EEG, allowing the semiology of the seizure to be observed and providing an ictal EEG recording. The critical EEG findings7 include ictal epileptiform discharges (which may be obscured or even mimicked by movement artefact) and post-ictal slowing of the background rhythm.

Aside from practical considerations (vEEG telemetry is an expensive investigation and is not Technetium Tc 99m Depreotide Injection (NeoTect)- FDA available) there are also some important clinical limitations. Firstly, the ictal scalp EEG is often normal in simple partial seizures (in which consciousness is preserved)56,57 and in frontal lobe seizures. In these cases the video recording will often be extremely useful.

A further helpful point is that frontal lobe seizures commonly arise from sleep and the ictal EEG will show this clearly even if there are no other electrographic signs of epilepsy. Although patients with DS often report seizures in sleep, when they are captured on telemetry they are inevitably preceded by waking,3 which again can be recorded electrographically. A more common problem concerns patients with seizures occurring so infrequently that they are unlikely to have an episode during telemetry.

Patients with more than one type of seizure also require special attention. Because DS and ES often occur in the same patient care must be taken to ensure that a representative example of each seizure type has been captured.

Ambulatory EEG59 may be conducted as an outpatient but suffers from the disadvantage of having no video recorded semiology to correlate with the EEG.

In an attempt to reduce the need for long and costly telemetry several investigators have explored the possibility of provoking seizures through suggestion while obtaining video and EEG recordings. Most recently, however, McGonigal and colleagues62 astrazeneca moscow simple suggestion with activation stimuli used routinely in EEG testing (photic stimulation and hyperventilation) and fully disclosed the aims of the procedure to patients.

In these settings, because of very occasional false positive results in patients with epilepsy,63,64 it is particularly important to have a witness confirm the provoked seizure as habitual. Simple partial seizures are not followed by a rise in serum prolactin and prolactin concentrations may be normal after prolonged status epilepticus. Blood must be taken between 20 and 30 minutes after the seizure and compared with a baseline sample.

The test is, however, used less and less in specialist centres as false positive results have now been found in syncope66 and DS. As we have seen, after organic diagnoses have been excluded and a primary psychiatric disorder that has been mistaken for epilepsy ruled out, the diagnostic possibilities are DS and factitious disorder.

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