The amgen scholars program

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Our findings suggest that trait empathy measures could predict whether patients are likely to respond to SSRI the amgen scholars program and imply that such treatments are less likely to succeed in psychopaths and patients with vmPFC damage, both of whom show a marked lack of empathy (63).

A role for serotonin in prosocial sentiments may also have implications for understanding the excessive feelings of guilt in depressed patients (64). But atomoxetine had no effect on moral judgment or behavior in the UG. Our findings instead highlight the primacy of prosocial sentiments involving considerations of harm in shaping moral judgment and social behavior. Previous studies have shown that the amgen scholars program covaries with moral judgment (11) and punishment in the UG (43).

Blocking serotonin reuptake with citalopram influenced moral judgment in the amgen scholars program salient personal scenarios, making subjects less likely to endorse harming one person to save many others, and also made subjects less likely to harm others via punishment in an economic game, effects that were stronger in highly empathic individuals.

This pattern of results implies that serotonin promotes prosocial behavior by enhancing the aversiveness of harming others, an effect that drives both moral judgment and the amgen scholars program. Our findings also have implications for the use of serotonin agents in the treatment of antisocial and aggressive behavior (47, 62).

Understanding the influence of serotonin on social and moral behavior is especially important because serotonin is implicated in a wide range of psychiatric disorders and sensitive to the environmental context (33), which is a demonstrably powerful force shaping our social lives.

The protocol was approved by the Cambridgeshire Research Ethics Committee. Participants were financially compensated. Two participants dropped out of the study before completing all three sessions. Two participants were excluded from all analyses because of severe peripheral side effects, and two participants were the amgen scholars program for indicating at debriefing that they did not believe the UG was real. The final analysis was carried out in 24 participants.

Participants attended three sessions at Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK (at least 1 wk apart) and received single doses of atomoxetine (60 mg), citalopram (30 mg), and placebo in a double-blind fully counterbalanced the amgen scholars program. At the start of each session, participants completed mood and trait questionnaires and took the drug orally.

Administration of cognitive testing was timed to coincide with the peak effects of both compounds, based on previous pharmacokinetic data. Mood was assessed by using visual analog scales and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (66). At the end of the third session, participants completed a debriefing questionnaire about their overall impressions of the study, including whether they believed they would be paid based on their choices during the UG and whether they had any suspicions about the order of drug administration.

In the task, participants made judgments on a series of hypothetical scenarios, presented as text on three screens. The first two screens described the scenario, and the third screen posed a question relevant to the current scenario (e. Each subject also responded to a set of nonmoral scenarios. On each session, participants responded to 6 nonmoral scenarios, 6 impersonal moral scenarios, and 17 personal moral scenarios.

Participants played the role of responder via computer interface. On each session, participants played the role of responder in 24 games, each with a different proposer. Proposer identities were randomly matched with offers.

Participants received identical offers on each session. After completing the UG task, participants rated the fairness of six offers representative of the different fairness categories on a Likert scale of 1 (very unfair) to 7 (very fair). The critical dependent measures were the proportions of offers rejected at each level of fairness and the fairness ratings at each level of fairness.

In line with previous studies in this area (10, 19, 52), response data were modeled by using generalized estimating equations (GEE) (67).

For the UG analysis, we analyzed rejection rates with drug, session, and fairness as within-subjects factors. For the Moral Judgment analysis, we analyzed acceptable judgment rates with drug, session, the amgen scholars program buy revia naltrexone implant type as within-subjects factors. Factors were dropped from subsequent analyses when nonsignificant.

When significant factors were found, we conducted more sperm hoc pairwise Least Significant Difference tests (for non-normally distributed dependent variables) and t tests (for normally distributed dependent variables). Significant differences were set at P We thank the staff at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Clarinex Facility, B.

This work was completed within the University of Cambridge Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, funded by a joint award from the Medical Research The amgen scholars program and the Wellcome Trust and also by a Network Award from the JT McDonnell Foundation. Conflict of interest statement: T.

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Crockett, Luke Clark, Marc D. Hauser, and Trevor W. ResultsConsistent with previous findings, emotional salience influenced moral judgment. DiscussionThe goal of this study was the amgen scholars program examine the modulatory role of serotonin on human moral judgment and behavior.

We used the same UG task as in our first study (16). Significant differences were set at P AcknowledgmentsWe thank the staff at the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research The amgen scholars program, B. Footnotes1To whom correspondence should be addressed. See Commentary on page 17071. OpenUrlCrossRefSinger T, Lamm C (2009) The social neuroscience of empathy. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedHare RD (2003) The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Multi-Health Systems, Toronto), 2nd Ed.

Blair RJR (2007) The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedHaidt J (2001) The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedGreene JD, Sommerville RB, Nystrom LE, Darley JM, Cohen JD (2001) An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedGreene JD, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedKoenigs M, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedSchnall S, Haidt J, Clore GL, Jordan AH (2008) Disgust as embodied moral judgment.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedde Vignemont F, Singer T (2006) The empathic brain: How, when and why. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedHein G, Singer T (2008) I feel how you feel but not always: The empathic brain and its modulation. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedAnstey ML, Rogers SM, Ott SR, Burrows M, Simpson SJ (2009) Serotonin mediates behavioral gregarization underlying swarm formation in desert locusts.

Koenigs M, Tranel D (2007) Irrational economic decision-making after ventromedial prefrontal damage: Evidence from the Ultimatum Game.

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