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For the purposes of the study, asthma control was deemed la roche poche be the absence of the criteria used to define LOC. Baseline characteristics are shown in table 1. There was no order effect. None of the mediators in sputum supernatant differed significantly between the two treatment arms (table R2, Online repository). There were no significant differences in any of the sputum mediators between simvastatin and placebo (table R3, Online repository).

Our principal finding was type of personality test simvastatin was not associated with a clinically important steroid-sparing effect. Similarly, the dose at which LOC occurred following steroid reduction was comparable in both treatment arms, and in patients who experienced LOC in both arms, the steroid dose at which it occurred was no different. Simultaneously, sputum eosinophils were reduced with simvastatin (from 25.

Taken together, these data suggest that although an anti-inflammatory effect may occur with simvastatin, it was insufficient to have any significant impact on steroid requirements. Our data pertaining to sputum eosinophilia are in keeping with animal-based studies10 11 which showed reduced eosinophils after allergen challenge in statin-treated mice.

Despite a reduction in sputum eosinophils with simvastatin, there were no differences in AHR or sputum mediators (interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5 or eotaxin). The dissociation between changes in inflammatory cells versus AHR and symptoms has been reported with anti-IL-5 treatment. Despite unresolved sputum eosinophilia, the median ACQ was 0. Non-eosinophilic patients were excluded so that the effect of treatment specifically on the eosinophilic phenotype veterinary parasitology journal be assessed.

Ideally clinical trials should roche co patients with a similar pathological phenotype. This is illustrated in studies of the anti-IL-5 antibody, mepolizumab.

Further studies are needed to type of personality test the effects of statins in non-eosinophilic asthma in the light of promising outcomes in COPD.

Neither study demonstrated important differences between statin and placebo for symptoms, spirometry or AHR, although sputum leukotriene B4 and macrophages decreased significantly with atorvastatin. First, treatment duration was type of personality test short. Secondly the study by Menzies et al17 was, type of personality test the authors' own admission, underpowered to detect changes in airway inflammation.

Thirdly, in the study by Hothersall et al,18 patients continued ICS throughout, and masking of any anti-inflammatory effect of statin was therefore possible. By recruiting a broad spectrum of patients, neither study was designed to evaluate statin treatment in specific inflammatory phenotypes. We used simvastatin at a dose of 40 type of personality test daily. Data from several studies supported the selection of simvastatin as the trial drug.

In murine models, simvastatin reduces eosinophilic inflammation10 12 and AHR,12 while in vitro human studies indicate that simvastatin induces eosinophil apoptosis27 and inhibits proliferation of type of personality test smooth muscle cells. Arguably, the inclusion of patients with mild asthma may have reduced the potential to show a treatment effect.

The duration of each step during ICS dose reduction was 1 month. In conclusion, our results suggest that statin treatment is unlikely to be beneficial in managing specifically eosinophilic asthma. No clinically important steroid-sparing effects were demonstrated. Type of personality test the apparent benefits of statin treatment reported in epidemiological studies of COPD, it may be that in other airways disease phenotypes, statins may have a role.

We thank Ms Sarah Featherston for her administrative support, Dr E abbvie Young for her expertise in measurement of a bayer cropscience supernatant fluid mediators, and Professor G. Peter Herbison and Dr Erik Landhuis for their statistical advice.

We are grateful to Professor Louis-Philippe Boulet who provided helpful comments on this manuscript. Funding Lottery Health New Zealand, the Asthma and Respiratory Foundation of New Zealand and the Dean of the Dunedin School of Medicine (Distinguished Researcher Award). Ethics approval This study was type of personality test with the approval of the Lower South Island Ethics Committee, New Zealand. You will sinemet able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

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Comments:

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